After V-8 engines have replaced four- and six-cylinder engines, space becomes a premium, and you must figure out how to fit the largest radiator possible into a crowded engine compartment. The difficulty arises when there is no longer a conventional guide to follow; you become, so to say, the engineer. However, with the technology present in modern performance parts, there should be no reason why we cannot keep our rods running cool. There may not be a hard-and-fast rule for keeping every street rod cool, but there are several generally accepted best practices for the cooling system.
How to Keep a Hot Rod Cool
One of the first things you can investigate is the temperature at which your engine overheats. Does that occur frequently or only while you’re in traffic? The radiator must have airflow across it to dissipate heat, thus if it remains cool on the highway but begins to overheat at a traffic light, the issue is likely connected to airflow. The next question to ask is whether or not the right cooling fan is installed. Also, do you using a fan shroud? Consider the path of least resistance; airflow follows the same principle. If there is a shroud in place to direct incoming air, it must pass through the radiator.
What should you do if you’ve already replaced the radiator, water pump, and cooling fan, but the car is still running hot? If we examine the source, we find that a stock engine generates approximately 42 BTU per horsepower, and with performance enhancements, even more. When a vehicle is overheating and new components have been installed in the cooling system, it is time to look elsewhere. The engine may generate excessive heat for reasons unrelated to the cooling system.
Normal Engine Air/Fuel Ratios
A correct air-to-fuel ratio will allow your engine to run efficiently and coolly. Most overheating difficulties associated with air/fuel ratios are caused by a lean mixture, which causes the cylinders to operate at a higher temperature. At all speeds, fuel pressure on carbureted systems normally ranges between 5 and 8 psi. It is essential to maintain this pressure under all load situations because if it decreases at higher RPMs, you run the danger of running hot. As a matter of thumb, most factory engines employ an air/fuel ratio between 14.1:1 and 13.4:1 at idle and a slightly richer ratio at high rpm. For optimal fuel efficiency, a quality fuel pump and a properly tuned and jetted carburetor are required.
There are several ways to test the air-fuel ratio. Exhaust gas analyzers are common in auto repair businesses, although not everyone has access to them. As an alternative, several aftermarket manufacturers offer air/fuel monitors and wideband tuners that measure exhaust emissions. Or you can measure your fuel mixture by inspecting your spark plugs for anomalous combustion characteristics.
By the rules of ignition timing, if the spark comes too early or too late, the cylinders will overheat, and the engine may experience a loss of power. If the spark occurs too soon, the engine may struggle against the cylinder pressure, which may result in pinging. When the spark happens too late, compression gases are not entirely burned, causing the cooling system to lose more heat. The optimal time of the ignition spark will vary depending on engine speed, load, and air/fuel combinations. And the correct ignition timing requires more than simply selecting the beginning time; the amount and pace of the mechanical and vacuum advance curves are also crucial in preventing overheating. This is because cylinder pressure is significantly greater at wide-open throttle compared to midrange. The lower the cylinder pressure, the longer it takes for the combustion process to finish.
Always use the appropriate thermostat for your engine. Without a thermostat, the engine could not control the minimum temperature range. The manufacturer intended our engines to operate with certain components installed. Every engine has an optimal operating temperature range, often 190°F to 210°F. On the majority of carbureted engines, a 180°F thermostat is utilized. You may test the functionality of your thermostat in a variety of ways. One approach involves allowing the engine to reach operating temperature while feeling the upper radiator hose; as the thermostat begins to open, the hose should begin to take the pressure and become hot. You can also use an infrared heat gun to detect the temperature change when the engine warms up by applying it to the thermostat housing. Some may even remove the thermostat and use a culinary thermometer to test its functionality in a pot of hot water.
Water Pump & Pulley
A leaking water pump nearly always indicates that the pump has failed and must be replaced. Before installing a new pump, always verify that the impeller rotates easily and with minimal end play. High-flow water pumps have been demonstrated to improve coolant flow in high-performance engines. Always use pulleys of the same size as those that came with the engine from the factory. It is not advised to install under-drive pulley kits on vehicles operated on the street. Poor cooling performance might result from underdriving the cooling system. When purchasing an aftermarket water pump, be mindful of the direction of rotation. Some of the later-style aluminum water pumps with a serpentine-belt drive system employed a reverse-rotation pump, which, if noticed, can result in significant complications.